Ikhfa is a Tajweed (rules of Quranic recitation) concept in Arabic pronunciation. There are 15 letters in the Arabic alphabet that are considered Ikhfa letters. These letters are divided into two categories: Ikhfa Shafawi (hidden Ikhfa) and Ikhfa Haqiqi (real Ikhfa).
What are Ikhfa letters?
Ikhfa letters are specific Arabic letters that are pronounced with a slight concealment or hiding of their sound when they appear with certain vowel markings in the Quranic text.
How many Ikhfa letters are there?
There are 15 Ikhfa letters in total.
What are the 15 Ikhfa letters?
- The 15 Ikhfa letters are: ب (ba), ج (ja), ح (ha), خ (kha), س (sa), ش (sha), ص (saa), ض (daa), ط (taa), ظ (zaa), ف (fa), غ (gha), ق (qa), ك (ka), and ل (la).
What is the difference between Ikhfa Shafawi and Ikhfa Haqiqi?
- Ikhfa Shafawi (Hidden Ikhfa): This occurs when one of the Ikhfa letters appears after the letter م (meem) with a Sukun. When you encounter an Ikhfa Shafawi, you should slightly hide the sound of the Ikhfa letter.
- Ikhfa Haqiqi (Real Ikhfa): This happens when one of the Ikhfa letters appears after any other letter with a Sukun. In Ikhfa Haqiqi, the sound of the Ikhfa letter should also be slightly concealed.
An example of Ikhfa Shafawi is found in the word “مِن بَعْدِ” (min ba’di) in Surah Al-Hijr (15:19) where the “ب” (ba) is an Ikhfa Shafawi letter. An example of Ikhfa Haqiqi is in the word “وَهُوَ قَاهِرُ” (wa huwa qaahiru) in Surah Al-An’am (6:61) where the “ق” (qa) is an Ikhfa Haqiqi letter.