What is tabarruj in Islamic terminology?
Tabarruj is a woman’s style of dress or attitude that is excessive in order to attract the attention of others when she comes out of her house, deliberately showing the beauty of her face and body and waving her way so that she can see the jewellery in front of other people.
Taabarruj is forbidden in Islam.
It should be noted that it is not forbidden for Muslim Women to adorn herself and she can wear the best perfume, Best clothing, makeup and adornment but only for the sake of her husband.
Also read : Hijab in Islam
Meaning of tabarruj
The origin word of tabarruj is taken from the word buruj which means “a sky-building that rises high and occupies the height of its place. “So women who show off their bodies (mutabarrijah) are women who show off their beauty as they show off (buruj).(1)
Islam protect women with the rule that women are allowed ornate on condition of not changing the nature which create by Allah. As we know that decorated the same as part of the faith, a duty for every Muslim, in dressing or make up a women must be in accordance with the guidance in the Al Qur ‘an and hadith.
Tabarruj is according to the language of origin of the word from (Tabarrajna and Tabarruj were taken from the word
baraja that is visible and high. Rule of forbidde for doing tabarruj means forbidding to display “jewelry” “in a general sense that is usually not shown by a good woman, or using something unnatural to use such as dressing up excessively, or walking waddling and so on. Whereas according to the terminology of Islamic teachings, tabarruj is the display of jewelry, the aurat and the beauty of his body other than to his husband
According to Ibn Kathir, Tabarruj is a woman who goes out of the house walking in front of men with the intention of inviting their passions. This is what is called tabarruj jahiliyah. The decorating in Arabic is contained in the meaning of “tabarruj” which according to Imam AlBukhari means the act of a woman who exhibits all her beauty.
Origin of the word “tabarruj” means itself is taken from the word ‘al-Buruj’ which is building a fort or a high palace. So a
woman who is reveals her beauty, as a fortress, a palace or a tower that towers, and of course attracts the attention of those who look at it
Prohibition of Tabarruj in Quran
وَقُل لِّلْمُؤْمِنَـٰتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَـٰرِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا ۖ وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِهِنَّ ۖ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ ءَابَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ ءَابَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَآءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ إِخْوَٰنِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِىٓ إِخْوَٰنِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِىٓ أَخَوَٰتِهِنَّ أَوْ نِسَآئِهِنَّ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـٰنُهُنَّ أَوِ ٱلتَّـٰبِعِينَ غَيْرِ أُو۟لِى ٱلْإِرْبَةِ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ أَوِ ٱلطِّفْلِ ٱلَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا۟ عَلَىٰ عَوْرَٰتِ ٱلنِّسَآءِ ۖ وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِن زِينَتِهِنَّ ۚ وَتُوبُوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ ٣١
And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and guard their chastity, and not to reveal their adornments except what normally appears. Let them draw their veils over their chests, and not reveal their ˹hidden˺ adornments except to their husbands, their fathers, their fathers-in-law, their sons, their stepsons, their brothers, their brothers’ sons or sisters’ sons, their fellow women, those ˹bondwomen˺ in their possession, male attendants with no desire, or children who are still unaware of women’s nakedness. Let them not stomp their feet, drawing attention to their hidden adornments. Turn to Allah in repentance all together, O believers, so that you may be successful.(Quran 24:31)
وَٱلْقَوَٰعِدُ مِنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ ٱلَّـٰتِى لَا يَرْجُونَ نِكَاحًۭا فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِنَّ جُنَاحٌ أَن يَضَعْنَ ثِيَابَهُنَّ غَيْرَ مُتَبَرِّجَـٰتٍۭ بِزِينَةٍۢ ۖ وَأَن يَسْتَعْفِفْنَ خَيْرٌۭ لَّهُنَّ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌۭ ٦٠
As for elderly women past the age of marriage, there is no blame on them if they take off their ˹outer˺ garments, without revealing their adornments. But it is better for them if they avoid this ˹altogether˺. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.(Surah noor, v60)
There are two classes of people who are residents of hell, who I have never seen it before; that is, a group of people who have whips like cows that are used to hurt humans; and a woman who opens her aurat and dresses thinly stimulates and waddles her head like a hump of a camel. They cannot enter heaven and smell it. Even though the smell of heaven can be smelled from a distance and so on, (Muslim)
Ref: (1)Ni’mat Shida & Lutfi Al-Manfaluth, Tabarruj and Hijab , (Tp, Tt), p. 23.
Excerpts are taken from the book: The Concept of Tabarruj in the Qur’an according to Muslim Commentators
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