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5 Hadith on Martyrdom

Who is a Martyr/Shaheed?

Allah says about the shaheed or martyrs,

“Think not of those who are slain in Allah’s way as dead. Nay, they live, finding their sustenance in the presence of their Lord; They rejoice in the bounty provided by Allah. And with regard to those left behind, who have not yet joined them (in their bliss), the (Martyrs) glory in the fact that on them is no fear, nor have they (cause to) grieve.’

— Quran 3:169–170

And there are numerous hadiths on martyrdom or shahadat in Islam. Lets read some hadith on shahadat/ Hadith on martyrdom in Islam

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5 Hadith on Martyrdom-Who are Martyrs? 9

1. The wish for Martyrdom

Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “By Him in Whose Hands my life is! Were it not for some men amongst the believers who dislike to be left behind me and whom I cannot provide with means of conveyance, I would certainly never remain behind any Sariya’ (army-unit) setting out in Allah’s Cause. By Him in Whose Hands my life is! I would love to be martyred in Allah’s Cause and then get resurrected and then get martyred, and then get resurrected again and then get martyred and then get resurrected again and then get martyred.(1)

2. Seven types of martyrdom besides fighting

 فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ الشُّهَدَاءُ سَبْعَةٌ سِوَى الْقَتْلِ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الْمَطْعُونُ شَهِيدٌ وَالْغَرِقُ شَهِيدٌ وَصَاحِبُ ذَاتِ الْجَنْبِ شَهِيدٌ وَالْمَبْطُونُ شَهِيدٌ وَالْحَرِقُ شَهِيدٌ وَالَّذِي يَمُوتُ تَحْتَ الْهَدْمِ شَهِيدٌ وَالْمَرْأَةُ تَمُوتُ بِجُمْعٍ شَهِيدٌ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

 The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “There are seven kinds of martyr other than those killed in the way of Allah. Someone who is killed by the plague is a martyr, someone who drowns is a martyr, someone who dies of pleurisy is a martyr, someone who dies of a disease of the belly is a martyr, someone who dies by fire is a martyr, someone who dies under a falling building is a martyr and a woman who dies in childbirth is a martyr.”(muwatta Malik, hadith 36)

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5 Hadith on Martyrdom-Who are Martyrs? 10
5 Hadith on Martyrdom-Who are Martyrs?

3.Sahih Hadith on Martyrdom-

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet (ﷺ) said:

“What do you say among yourselves about the martyr?” They said: “The one who is killed in the cause of Allah.” He said: “In that case the martyrs among my nation would be few. Whoever is killed in the cause of Allah is a martyr; whoever dies in the cause of Allah is a martyr; whoever dies of a stomach disease is a martyr; and whoever dies of the plague is a martyr.” Another chain narrates with the addition of “and the drowned is a martyr.”(2)

3. Hadith on Martyrdom- those who are killed in defence

Sa’id b. Zaid reported God’s Messenger as saying, “He who is killed in defence of his religion is a martyr, he who is killed in self-defence is a martyr, he who is killed in defence of his property is a martyr, and he who is killed in defence of his family is a martyr.” Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud and Nasa’i transmitted it.(3)

4. Narrated ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr:

that the Prophet (ﷺ) said: “Whoever is killed over his wealth, then he is martyr.”(4)

5. Hadith on Martyrdom- those who are buried under debris are martyr

It has been narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that the, Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

While a man walks along a path, finds a thorny twig lying on the way and puts it aside, Allah would appreciate it and forgive him The Prophet (ﷺ) said: The martyrs are of five kinds: one who dies of plague; one who dies of diarrhoea (or cholera) ; one who is drowned; one who is buried under debris and one who dies fighting in the way of Allah.(5)

Hadeeth of al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’di Karb on blessings of Allah on martyrs

It was reported in the hadeeth of al-Miqdaam ibn Ma’di Karb that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“The martyr (shaheed) has seven blessings from Allaah: he is forgiven from the moment his blood is first shed; he will be shown his place in Paradise; he will be spared the trial of the grave; and he will be secure on the Day of the Greatest Terror (the Day of Judgement); there will be placed on his head a crown of dignity, one ruby of which is better than this world and all that is in it; he will be married to seventy-two of al-hoor al-‘iyn; and he will be permitted to intercede for seventy of his relatives.”

Hadith of Sahl ibn Hanif on Whoever honestly asks Allah for martyrdom

Sahl ibn Hanif reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Whoever honestly asks Allah for martyrdom, Allah will give him the status of a martyr even if he dies in his bed.”(6)

reference

1.  Sahih al-Bukhari 2797

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَانِ، أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْبٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي سَعِيدُ بْنُ الْمُسَيَّبِ، أَنَّ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ “‏ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوْلاَ أَنَّ رِجَالاً مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لاَ تَطِيبُ أَنْفُسُهُمْ أَنْ يَتَخَلَّفُوا عَنِّي، وَلاَ أَجِدُ مَا أَحْمِلُهُمْ عَلَيْهِ، مَا تَخَلَّفْتُ عَنْ سَرِيَّةٍ تَغْزُو فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ، وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوَدِدْتُ أَنِّي أُقْتَلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ أُحْيَا، ثُمَّ أُقْتَلُ ثُمَّ أُحْيَا، ثُمَّ أُقْتَلُ ثُمَّ أُحْيَا، ثُمَّ أُقْتَلُ ‏”‏‏.‏

2. Sunan Ibn Majah 2804

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ أَبِي الشَّوَارِبِ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ الْمُخْتَارِ، حَدَّثَنَا سُهَيْلٌ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ ‏”‏ مَا تَقُولُونَ فِي الشَّهِيدِ فِيكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالُوا الْقَتْلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ إِنَّ شُهَدَاءَ أُمَّتِي إِذًا لَقَلِيلٌ مَنْ قُتِلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ وَمَنْ مَاتَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ وَالْمَبْطُونُ شَهِيدٌ وَالْمَطْعُونُ شَهِيدٌ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

قَالَ سُهَيْلٌ وَأَخْبَرَنِي عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مِقْسَمٍ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، وَزَادَ، فِيهِ ‏”‏ وَالْغَرِقُ شَهِيدٌ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

3.Mishkat al-Masabih 3529

وَعَن سعيدِ بنِ زيدٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ: «مَنْ قُتِلَ دُونَ دِينِهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ وَمَنْ قُتِلَ دُونَ دَمِهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ وَمَنْ قُتِلَ دُونَ مَالِهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ وَمَنْ قُتِلَ دُونَ أَهْلِهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ» . رَوَاهُ التِّرْمِذِيُّ وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ

4.Jami` at-Tirmidhi 1419

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ بَشَّارٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَامِرٍ الْعَقَدِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ الْمُطَّلِبِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ، عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ طَلْحَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ مَنْ قُتِلَ دُونَ مَالِهِ فَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَابِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ وَسَعِيدِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ وَأَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ وَابْنِ عُمَرَ وَابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ وَجَابِرٍ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى حَدِيثُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ وَجْهٍ ‏.‏ وَقَدْ رَخَّصَ بَعْضُ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ لِلرَّجُلِ أَنْ يُقَاتِلَ عَنْ نَفْسِهِ وَمَالِهِ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ابْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ يُقَاتِلُ عَنْ مَالِهِ وَلَوْ دِرْهَمَيْنِ ‏.‏

5.Sahih Muslim 1914

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ يَحْيَى، قَالَ قَرَأْتُ عَلَى مَالِكٍ عَنْ سُمَىٍّ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏”‏ بَيْنَمَا رَجُلٌ يَمْشِي بِطَرِيقٍ وَجَدَ غُصْنَ شَوْكٍ عَلَى الطَّرِيقِ فَأَخَّرَهُ فَشَكَرَ اللَّهُ لَهُ فَغَفَرَ لَهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ وَقَالَ ‏”‏ الشُّهَدَاءُ خَمْسَةٌ الْمَطْعُونُ وَالْمَبْطُونُ وَالْغَرِقُ وَصَاحِبُ الْهَدْمِ وَالشَّهِيدُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

6. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1909

عن سهل بن حنيف أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ مَنْ سَأَلَ اللَّهَ الشَّهَادَةَ بِصِدْقٍ بَلَّغَهُ اللَّهُ مَنَازِلَ الشُّهَدَاءِ وَإِنْ مَاتَ عَلَى فِرَاشِهِ

1909 صحيح مسلم كتاب الإمارة باب استحباب طلب الشهادة في سبيل الله تعالى

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