What is Al-MADD al-Badal?
The concept of “Madd Badal” in Arabic relates to a specific rule in Quranic recitation (Tajweed) that deals with the pronunciation of words with two consecutive hamzahs, where the second hamzah has a sukoon (no vowel). When these conditions are met, the second hamzah is converted into a Madd letter with the same vowel as the first hamzah, making the pronunciation smoother. This rule is applied to facilitate the recitation and make it easier for readers.
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Here are the key points regarding Madd Badal:
- When to Apply Madd Badal: Madd Badal is applied when there are two hamzahs in the same word, and the second hamzah has a sukoon. The goal is to make the recitation smoother and avoid the difficulty of pronouncing two hamzahs in succession.
- Conversion of the Second Hamzah: The second hamzah is converted to a Madd letter of the same vowel category as the first hamzah. If the first hamzah has a Dammah, the second hamzah becomes “و.” If the first hamzah has a Kasrah, the second hamzah becomes “ي.” If the first hamzah has a Fathah, the second hamzah becomes “ا.”
- Examples of Madd Badal: Here are some examples of Madd Badal in Quranic verses:
- أُؤْتينا (originally) ⇨ وَأُوتِينَا (after applying Madd Badal)
- إئْتاء (originally) ⇨ وَا۪يتَٓائِ (after applying Madd Badal)
- أأْدم (originally) ⇨ ءادم (after applying Madd Badal)
In these examples, you can see how the second hamzah with sukoon changes to a Madd letter in the movement (harakah) of the first hamzah to make the pronunciation smoother.
Madd Badal is one of the rules in Tajweed that Quranic reciters study and apply to ensure the accurate and melodious recitation of the Quran. It helps maintain the proper pronunciation of words with consecutive hamzahs.
What is substituted prolongation in Al-MADD al-Badal?
Substituted prolongation is observed when a hamza (ء) comes before a harf madd (ا or ي or و). This harf madd is pronounced for two counts when reciting continuously or when pausing after the word containing the harf madd.
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