Notes helps in quick reference and act as a mind Map. Today, I would like to share my notes from Surah al-Maida which is the fifth Surah of Quran. With the simple notes from Surah al-Maida, I wish to share the lessons I learnt from Quran and the Quranic Verses which has touched me the most. May this help us increase in productivity and guide us to be a better Muslim.
This Surah takes its name from verse 112 in which the word occurs.
Topics of Surah Al-Maida
1-2 Fulfil your obligations, promises and agreements and Cooperate in piety and not in transgression
3-3 About Forbidden meat and Islam is the complete and perfect way of life.
4-5 All good and clean things are made lawful and Food of the People of the Book is made lawful and marriage with their women is permitted
6-6 Order for making ablution and Permission of Tayammum
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7-11 Stand for true witness and establish justice and about the Plot of Jews to kill the Prophet and his eminent companions
12-13 Salah and Zakah were obligatory for Jews and Jews habit of being deceitful
14-16 Christians too have neglected most of their Book and Jews and Christians are asked to become Muslims
17-17 Jesus son of Mary is not God or son of God
18-19 False claim of Jews and Christians to be the children of God and Invitation to Jews and Christians to become Muslims
20-26 Behavior of Jews with their own Prophet Musa (Moses) and Curse of Allah on the Jews for 40 years
27-31 Story of Adam’s two sons (Abel and Cain)
32-32 Decree of Allah regarding the killing of a human being
33-34 Punishment of waging war against Allah and His Rasool
35-37 Jihad is the way to success and No ransom will save the unbelievers from the punishment
38-40 Punishment for theft
41-43 Do not provide lip-service; be true believers and If Allah intends to punish, the Rasool cannot save
44-47 Laws of Taurat (Torah) and Those who do not judge by the laws of Allah, They are unbelievers, They are wrongdoers
48-50 Diversity of human race and Establish justice based on Allah’s revelations
51-53 Do not take Jews or Christians as your protectors
54-56 Your protecting friends are Allah, His Rasool, and your fellow believers
57-60 Do not befriend those people who make a mockery of your religion
61-66 Jews deceiving behavior and Jews slander against Allah and If only the people of the Book had believed, They could have had the best of the both worlds
67- 71 Messengers of Allah and the attitude of people towards them.
72-74 Those who say Jesus is God are disbelievers
75-77 Who was Jesus son of Mary?
78-82 Disbelievers among the Children of Israel were cursed by the tongues of David and Jesus and Christians are closer to Muslims than the Jews and Pagans
83-86 Good Christians recognize the truth and become Muslims
87-89 Do not make Halal things Haram on your own and Kaffarah (penalty) for breaking the oath
90-93 Prohibition of intoxicants (liquor and drugs) and gambling and Rasool’s duty is only to pass on the Message of Allah
94-96 Prohibition of hunting during Hajj Ihram (wearing pilgrim garb) and Kaffarah (penalty) for hunting during Hajj Ihram
97-100 Sacred elements of Hajj
101-104 Do not ask questions like the nation of Musa (Moses) and Superstitions are prohibited in Islam
105-108 Last will and testament, and testimony of witnesses
109-115 Favors of Allah upon Jesus and the miracles he was given and Disciples of Jesus asked for a Table Spread of food as a miracle
116-120 Testimony of Jesus (Isa AS) on the Day of Judgement about the Christians
Discussion on the Central theme of the Surah
Some of the favours of Allah ta’ala on Maryam AS:
1. When Maryam AS was in the custody of Zakariyya AS, she used to receive fruit from the unseen
2. Allah ta’ala preserved her chastity
3. Allah taala granted her a child although she had no husband
4. Her son spoke to the people while still in the cradle and cleared her name
Some of Allah ta’ala’s favours on ‘Isaa AS :
1. He was born of a pious and chosen woman.
2. When the Bani Isra’eel were antagonistic towards him, Allah ta’ala says, “ I assisted you by means of the Ruhul Qudus” meaning Jibra’eel AS according to most Scholars
3. He spoke to the people i.e. giving Da’wah on the Oneness of Allah ta’ala to the people when he was a Prophet or “middle age” could be when he comes back to earth and speaks to the people since he had not reached middle age when he was raised to the haeven
4. Allah ta’ala had taught him the Book, wisdom, the Tawrah and the Injeel
5. Various miracles i.e. “You created from clay something in the shape of a bird, then you blew on it, and it became a bird by My leave. You cured those born blind and lepers by My leave. You raised the dead by My leave. These were some major miracles as people who are born blind cannot be treated even in this modern age and leprosy was a major disease with no cure and which caused social ostracism.
Allah ta’ala mentions بِإِذْنِي (by My leave/permission) multiple times showing that the miracles occurred only through the permission of Allah ta’ala.
Despite witnessing these miracles, the Bani Isra’eel refused to believe and resorted to persecuting ‘Isa AS. Eventually they even attempted to assassinate him. With reference to this Allah says, “I kept the children of Isra‘il away from you when you came to them with clear signs, and the disbelievers among them said, “This is nothing but a clear magic.”
The Bani Isra’eel dismissed the miracles as magic and the Christians went to the other extreme and went so far as to call him Allah’s son and Allah Himself. This was despite the fact that he told them, “Indeed Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him.” [Surah Aali ‘lmraan: verse 51 and Surah Maryam: verse 36]
Who were the Hawaariyeen?
Hawaariyeen were Believers, helpers and supporters of ‘Isaa AS (his disciples) and so called as they were white / clean / washed clothes for a living. The Hawaariyeen requested that Allah ta’ala send to them from the sky a table laden with food. Verses 112-115)
In the previous verse they said they believed in Allah ta’ala and His Messenger and asked Allah ta’ala to bear witness that they had submitted. But despite witnessing the miracles of ‘Isaa AS they requested another miracle. Instead of cordially asking for Allah ta’ala to show them a miracle, they said, “O Isa, son of Maryam, can your Lord send down to us a repast from the heavens?” (“Repast” means a feast).At the discourteous mode of address, ‘Isaa AS told them to fear Allah ta’ala. Being Believers and close to ‘Isaa AS made them bold. For this reason ‘Isaa AS did not reprimand them very severely, but impressed on them that it was unbecoming of a Believer to make such requests.‘Isaa AS made Du’a for the food to be sent so that it may be a happy occasion for those present and those in the future as a sign.
Allah ta’ala accepted their request however a condition was attached that they did not store any of the food.
They disobeyed Allah ta’ala after He accepted their request just as the Bani Isra’eel had done regarding the Mann and Salwa. Showing ingratitude for the bounties of Allah ta’ala draws grave consequences and results in the very same bounties being withdrawn from the person.
Regarding miracles there is a condition. If people ask for a miracle and it occurs and thereafter people disbelieve, there follows severe punishment. Allah ta’ala says if they “Disbelieve/show ingratitude” – يَكْفُرْ can mean both since showing ingratitude is the highest form of disbelief.
Disobedience is the greatest form of ingratitude and as a result, Allah ta’ala inflicts punishment as we see in the Qur’an the story of the people of Saba (Surah Saba, verse 17) and also in the story of the town which was blessed with many bounties which were taken away and instead Allah ta’ala inflicted upon them starvation and fear (Surah Nahl, verse 112).
The story of the table ends here and the Qur’an is quiet about what actually happened however the following Hadith says they were punished and trasformed into monkeys and pigs. Their disobedience caused the food to rot, whereafter the occurrence of rotting began in the world.
The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam mentioned, “The table was sent from the heavens, bearing meat and bread. They were instructed not be deceitful by storing some for the next day. However, they were fraudulent and stored food for the future. As a result, they were transformed into monkeys and pigs.”
Testimony of Isa AS on the Day of Judgement about the Christians
These verses also describe the scenario on the Day of Judgement when Allah ta’ala will ask ‘Isaa AS if he had told the people to ascribe divinity to himslef and his mother (or shared divinity as in the concept of the Trinity.) This question shall be posed in front of the entire mankind, including those Christians who ascribed divinity to ‘lsaa AS and his mother Maryam AS.
‘Isaa AS will say it is not his right (i.e not for me) to say anything like that. Had he said it, then Allah ta’ala would have known as Allah ta’ala knows what was in his heart. In this way he is negating/denying any type of divinity for himslef.
Once again Allah ta’ala knows everything but will ask to make it apparent to the people on the Day of Judgment.
He will declare that he only preached what he was told to preach i.e. the Oneness of Allah (Tawheed) and that he was a witness over while he was there. He did not know what they did aftre he was not among them any more.
It will be evident from this that those who claimed to follow ‘Isaa AS actually bore no resemblance to his teachings. It will then be established that their belief in the Trinity was baseless.
‘Isaa AS will say Allah ta’ala reserves the right to do as He pleases since every person is His slave. Even if He decides to forgive them, it will be because of His divine wisdom.
Some Verses to Ponder from Surah Al Imran:
- O you who believe, be steadfast for (obeying the commands of) Allah, (and) witnesses for justice. Malice
against a people should not prompt you to avoid doing justice. Do justice. That is nearer to Taqwa. Fear Allah.
Surely, Allah is All-Aware of what you do.(verse 8)
- Allah has promised those who believe and do good deeds: For them there is forgiveness and a great reward.(v9)
- Whoever repents after his transgression and corrects himself, then Allah shall relent towards him. Surely, Allah is Most-Forgiving, Very Merciful.(v39)
- Your only friend is Allah, then His Messenger and those who believe, who establish Salah and pay Zakah and bow before Allah.
- If the People of the Book had believed and feared Allah, We would have written off their evil deeds and
would have surely admitted them to the Gardens of Bliss.(v65)
- Eat from what Allah has provided you as good and lawful, and fear Allah in whom you believe.(v88)
- O you who believe! Wine, gambling, altars and divining arrows are filth, made up by Satan. Therefore, refrain from it, so that you may be successful.(v90)
- When it is said to them, “Come to what Allah has sent down, and to the Messenger;” they say, “Sufficient for us is that on which we have found our forefathers.” Is it so, even though their forefathers knew nothing, and had no guidance either?(v104)
- Allah will say, “This is a day on which the truth of the truthful shall benefit them. For them there are gardens beneath which rivers flow, where they will live forever. Allah is well-pleased with them and they are well-pleased with Him. That is the great achievement. (v199)
- To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and of whatever lies therein, and He is powerful over everything(v120)