Fiqh of Wudu (Summary)

fiqh of wudu
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Learning the fiqh of wudu is important. We need to know the different integrals of wudu. We need to know what is the fardh of wudu which if not done properly will result in invalid wudu similarly we need to know the adab of wudu so we can do wudu in most beautiful manner. Below is the summary of the Fiqh of wudu which is taken from the book Ascent to felicity, an English translation of the book “Maraqi al sa’adat by Abu al Ikhlas al shurunbulali who is also the author of Nurul iddah” This is according to Hanafi law of Islamic Jurispudence.

4 Integrals of Wudu :

1. Fardh of wudu

  1. Washing the Face: Washing the face, whose lengthwise demarcation is from the top of the forehead to the bottom of the chin for someone without a thick beard,n or [for one with a thick beard] to the bottom of the beard [that lies on the face, as opposed to the hair that hangs below the chin]. Its demarcation in width is from one earlobe to the other, even for someone with a beard;
  1. Washing Arms: Washing the two arms, up to and including the elbows;
  2. Masah : Wiping a fourth of the head;
  3. Feet : Washing the two feet, up to and including the ankles.


2.SUNNAHS OF WUDU

  1. Niyah :The intention (niyyah),
  2. Miswak: Using the toothstick (siwak): to be used before or while rinsing the mouth(read benefit of miswak)
  3. Tasmiya: Mentioning the Name of Allah (tasmiya): That is, to say Bismillahi ‘r·Rahmani ‘r·Rahim
  4. Washing the hands up to and including the wrists in the beginning of wudu
  5. Maintaining the correct order of limbs, as Allah Most High has listed in His Book
  6. Continuity
  7. Washing [those limbs that are washed] three complete times,
  8. Rinsing the [entire] mouth [three times],
  9. Rinsing the [soft: part of the] nose [three times],
  10. Running one’s wet fingers through the beard,
  11. Running one’s wet fingers in between the fingers and toes,
  12. Wiping the entire head [once, and the ears with the same water],
  13. Rubbing’s [the limbs when washing them],
  14. Starting with the right limb [when washing the arms and feet],
  15. Starting with the tips of the fingers and toes [when washing the arms and feet],
  16. Starting with the front of the head [when wiping it],
  17. Wiping the back of the neck, but not the throat.


3.ADAB OF WUDU

  1. Facing the qibla [direction of the Kaaba , Mecca ],
  2. Avoiding the water used in wudu [from getting on one’s body or clothes],
  3. Making supplication (durud’) with those words that have been narrated
  4. Mentioning the Name of Allah when washing each limb,
  5. Performing wudu by oneself,
  6. Rushing to perform wudu before the prayer time comes in, unless one has a chronic excuse
  7. Reciting the two testifications of faith after wudu
  8. Drinking from the leftover water afterwards.


4. MAKRUHAT OF WUDU

  1. Wasting water (israf)
  2. Using too little water when washing.”
  3. Striking or slapping the face with water when washing it,
  4. Speaking during wudu other than making supplication,
  5. Having someone else assisting one in wudu without a valid excuse.

CONDITIONS FOR BEING LEGALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR WUDHU

The legal reason for performing wudu is the desire to do that which is not permisible except in a state of wudu such as the ritual prayer (salah ) or touching coppy of the Qur’an; or the legal reason could also be the divine command
directed to someone due co the near expiration of the prayer time. The conditions of being legally responsible to perform it are the following:

  1. Islam,
  2. Puberty,
  3. Sanity,
  4. Termination of menstruation, posnatal bleeding, or the state of ritual impurity,
  5. Access to and ability to use sufficient purifying water,
  6. Ability to perform the prayer (salah )The divine command being directed to the person due to the near
    expiration of the prayer time

CONDITIONS FOR VALIDITY FOR WUDHU

  1. That purifying water completely encompass the skin [of those limbs that must be washed; i.e., the obligatory integrals];
  2. The removal of anything that blocks water from reaching the surface of the skin;
  3. The ending of any state that contradicts it [i.e., while performing wudu such as the appearance of urine at the tip of private parts.

The categories of wudu :

The categories of wudu are three: obligatory, mandatory, and recommended

WHEN WUDHU IS FARDH

Wudu is Obligatory /fardh when a person is in a state of minor ritual impurity and intends on doing [any of the following:]


(I) Salah: The ritual prayer,
(2)sajdah tilawat: The prostration of recital,
(3) Touching a verse of the Qur’an [unless with a nonattached barrier];


WHEN WUDHU IS WAJIB

Wudu is Mandatory ( wajib ), namely, when a person is in a state of minor ritual impurity and intends

1. on performing circumambulation (tawaf ) around the Ka’ba or

2. touching a book of Qur’anic exegesis (tafsir);


WHEN WUDHU IS RECOMMENDED

(1) Touching Book of fiqh/hadith out of veneration
(2) After every sin
(3) After waking up
(4) Before sleeping
(5) To avoid disagreement of scholars of other schools of thought,
(6) Before every salah
(7) After laughing out loud outside of the prayer/ salah


WHAT NULLIFIES A WUDHU

  1. Anything that exits from the two openings ‘ [namely the penis or vagina, and the anus],
  2. Filth that flows from other than the two openings, such as blood [or pus],
  3. Vomiting a mouthful or more,
  4. Sleeping in a position such that the buttocks are not firmly planted onto the ground, such as while lying down or leaning one one’s side,
  5. Loss of consciousness,
  6. Insanity,
  7. Drunkenness,
  8. Laughing out loud, by an adult, while performing the prayer (salah)
  9. Contact between an erect penis and vagina.

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