Sayyiduna Thawban radi allahu said,”Nothing averts decree but supplication and nothing prolongs life but kindness (to
parents and relatives). And, a man is deprived of provision only because of sin that he perpetrates.”
We had a question that if every thing is predetermined then how does Dua change the destiny?
There is a very beautiful tashreeh of this hadith done in Mazahir al Haque. Sheikh Waliudldin Abu Abdullah Al-Khateeb Al-Tabrezi says that Destiny that dua changes is the suspended kind (muallaq). In fact, this itself is predetermined. But, the irreversible decree cannot be put off or changed. All the causes and effects follow the same rule, like cure and healing after medicine and deeds that take to paradise and hell, and so on. They are part of the suspended decree.
Some scholars say that if a man engages in supplication and in forethought (for a way out) then it enables him to resign to the decree. He realises that which is declined will not be averted. Thus, it is constant supplication and trying to change his situation that makes it simpler for him. This is how supplication puts off decree.
Shaykh Abdul Haq Muhaddith Dahlawi said that Prophet Sallalahu alaihe wa sallam meant to convey the merits and significance of supplication. His words mean that nothing can after Divine decree. But, if there was something would be Dua. It is like the hadith (tradition): ‘If anything could overtake decree that would be the evil eye.”
Long life means blessing and goodness in one’s life. The hadith (tradition) concludes with the words that . a man is deprived of provision because of his sills. But, there are more sinners in the world than pious men yet they eat
better than the pious. Some scholars suggest that the hadith (tradition) speaks of provision of the hereafter which in reward. It also means internal satisfaction and spiritual greatness the Quran says.
As against this, the sinners live greedily by day and night and remain in the darkness of sin. They wear themselves out in acquiring or seeking wealth and are always desperate. They are deprived of peace. Besides, they keep away from worship and so are out of the scope of Allah’s mercy. They seem to be very happy and swimming in money but they, live a difficult life. Allah says in surah Taha (verse 124).
On this basis, we may say the same thing for a sinning believer. He may own wealth uncountable but his life is not a smooth drive sviritually. If he has in him light of faith in a perfect way then he is always fearful of sin. He fear punishment in the next world. His conscience continues to prick him, so, Provision does not merely mean what fills the belly but it also means a content, peaceful life. This is the lot of only the righteous.
Some scholars say that the hadith (tradition) speaks of those believers who succumb to temptation and commits sin. So Allah punishes them in this world and deprives them of provision. Their hunger and poverty may be said to be their expiation for sin in this world or they may be afflicted with hardship. They are thus prompted to make a sincere repentance. Their’ sins are atoned through their affliction and they become pure. Those who are not enabled to repent and be purified through trial, etc. they continue to sin to the end and they die as sinners to be punished in the hereafter. We seek refuge in Allah from that.
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