How Many Makhraj Are There?
In the science of Tajweed, there are five main Makhraj. These Makhraj are the points of articulation for all Arabic letters, and they provide the foundation for proper Quranic recitation. Here’s a breakdown of the five primary Makhraj:
- Al-Jawf (The Throat): This Makhraj involves letters produced deep within the throat, such as the letters ‘أ’ (Alif), ‘ح’ (Ha), and ‘ع’ (Ain). Articulating these letters correctly requires using the back of the throat, and the sound originates from deep within.
- Al-Halq (The Throat): Letters from this Makhraj are pronounced from the middle of the throat, such as ‘ه’ (Ha), ‘خ’ (Kha), and ‘غ’ (Ghain). The sound is produced slightly forward compared to Al-Jawf.
- Ash-Shafat (The Roof of the Mouth): This Makhraj involves the letters pronounced using the roof of the mouth. Examples include ‘ق’ (Qaf), ‘ك’ (Kaf), and ‘ج’ (Jim). The articulation requires contact between the middle of the tongue and the roof of the mouth.
- Al-Lisaan (The Tongue): Letters produced from this Makhraj require the involvement of the tongue. ‘ت’ (Ta), ‘د’ (Dal), and ‘ن’ (Nun) are some examples. The tongue’s tip touches the upper front teeth or their vicinity.
- Ash-Shafatayn (The Lips): Letters pronounced using both lips are categorized under this Makhraj. Common examples include ‘ب’ (Ba), ‘م’ (Meem), and ‘و’ (Waw).
Each of these five Makhraj represents a specific point in the vocal tract where sounds originate. Precise pronunciation from the correct Makhraj is fundamental to Tajweed.